How could it happen that more than a dozen of the most prestigious scientific associations signed and submitted this letter on ‘climate change’ without having ensured that the used terminology is sufficiently defined. Read the rest of the entry
The UNFCCC does not define ‘climate’ at all, while
WMO says: 'climate' is average weather.
This website will provide information and ask, does science know what climate is?

Reference links :
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
NEW 2009


This & That




UNESCO 1991, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, “The Ocean and Climate: A guide to Present Needs”, technical series no. 38; I. The Ocean’s role in climate change: What is known, what is being done, and what needs to be done (p.7); Introduction (p. 7)

The problems of climate change are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole, if the current efforts by the INC*) are to succeed effectively. This approach should be reflected in the proposed Framework Convention on Climate Change. The oceans play a key role in determining the earth’s climate. Any possibility of predicting the evolution of climate beyond a few weeks demands that ocean behaviour be taken into account.

*) Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (on the Framework Convention on Climate Change)



H.H. Lamb, Meteorological Office Bracknell, Berkshire (UK), “The New Look of Climatology”, NATURE, Vol. 223, September 20, 1969, pp.1209ff;

Only thirty years ago climatology was generally regarded as the mere dry-as-dust bookkeeping end of meteorology.



(1) Tom Wilkie, Science Editor, 1989, “Environmental expert launches attack on ‘corrupt scientists’”, The Independent, 23 September 1989, p.8

(2) James A. Lovelock, 1989, “The greening of science”, The Guardian, 29.9.1989, (Environment Guardian 23); (The Guardian noted: This is an edited extract from Professor Lovelock’s lecture to Friends of Earth at their annual meeting last week).

(1) Britain’s foremost environmental scientist last night launched an outspoken attack on ‘corrupt scientists’ who play on public fears about pollution for their own personal advantage.

(2) Science must abandon its genteel posturing and come down to Earth again, quite literally. This is no easy task. It requires scientists to recognise that science has grown fat, lazy, and corrupt and, like an obese atherosclerotic man, imagines that more rich food will cure his condition.



Knut Aagaard, 1982, “Inflow from the Atlantic Ocean to the Polar Basin”; in: Louis Rey (ed), The Arctic Ocean, London, p.69-81 (79). (The book presents the proceedings of a conference organised by the ‘Comite Arctique International’ created in Monaco 1979 and held in March 1980 at the Royal Geographical Society.

It may well be, for example that in the long run the Eskimo in Alaska will care considerably what the European puts into the Irish Sea.



Jean M. Grove, The Little Ice Age, London/New York 1988, p.363;

Evidently it will be necessary to understand the climate of the deep oceans before a full understanding of changes in the atmosphere can be achieved.



Roger Pielke Sr, What is Climate? Why Does it Matter How We Define Climate? July 11, 2005,

If, however, we are interested in atmospheric and ocean circulation changes, which, afterall is what creates our weather, we need to focus on how humans are altering these circulations.



  • J.D. Woods, 1984, “The upper ocean and sea-air interaction in global climate”, in: John T. Houghton (ed), The Global Climate, Cambridge, p.141, 142.
  • Carl Wunsch, 1984, “The ocean circulation in climate”, ”, in: John T. Houghton (ed), The Global Climate, Cambridge, p.189, 190

J.D. Woods, 1984,

_Nevertheless, the upper ocean holds the key to climate prediction.

_The central role of the oceans in climate is acknowledged in every book on the subject, but the justification varies considerably depending on the author’s viewpoint.

_Approximately 80% of the solar energy intercepted by our planet (173 petawatt) enters the atmosphere over the oceans.

Carl Wunsch, 1984

_Atmospheric climate is, to some as yet unclear degree, controlled through the interaction of air and sea.

_The thermal capacity of seawater is larger (about four times) than that of air.

_Because ‘climate’ means so many things to different people (depending on their particular interest), ..etc.

J.T. Houghton, et al. (ed.), 1990,

“Climate Change –The IPCC Scientific Assessment”, P. xxxvii, p. 76

_The oceans play a central role in shaping the climate through three distinct mechanisms. _Firstly, they absorb carbon dioxide and exchange it with the atmosphere…(etc).

_The ocean also plays an essential role in the climate system. (p.76)

_Over half of the solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface is first absorbed by the ocean, where it is stored and …(etc) ..(p.76).



Harlow Shapley (ed), Climate Change Evidence, Causes, and Effects, Cambridge 1953,

  • Harlow Shapley, “On Climate and Life, p. 1-12 (1);
  • Carleton S. Coon, “Climate and Race”, p. 13-34 (13);
  • Paul B. Sears, 1953, “Climate and Civilization”, p.36-50 (36)
  • Although climate is chiefly a matter of winds, ocean currents, sunshine, rains, and snow, it involves also the responses of plants and animals to these physical factors.
  • Despite our alleged intelligence as a species, and despite the efforts of several little-heeded men, it has taken a long time for scientists to learn the facts of life as they pertain to the chain reaction of climate, physiological function, organic adaptation, and certain aspects of race, in animal in general, man included.
  • The most cursory knowledge of such traits as the use of fire, clothing, shelter, and diet makes it clear that climate is an implicit function of the process we call culture.



John H. Conover, 1953, ” Climate Change as interpreted from meteorological data”, in: Harlow Shapley (ed), Climate Change Evidence, Causes, and Effects, Cambridge 1953, p. 221-233 (221)

Until recently few meteorologists believed that we were living in a period of climate changes that could be substantiated by meteorological data. The changes deduced from such data were often dismissed as random, and it was thought that over longer period of records they would average out.



Essay 2010
Is the term ‚climate’ too unspecific?
Pages 10

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Essays from 1992 to 1997 on CLIMATE
by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts
“Legal Means for Understanding the Marine and climatic Change Issue”,
p.24 presented at the 28th Annual Conf. of the Law of the Sea Institute, Honolulu

“Conditions for the protection of the global climate”,
p.53 presented at GKSS Research Center Geesthacht


Black Sea-Model Case
--Paper, p.53
--Conf-Paper, p. 6


Four short texts
1994 Moscow

1994 LOS

1993 LOS

1992 Nature

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