How could it happen that more than a dozen of the most prestigious scientific associations signed and submitted this letter on ‘climate change’ without having ensured that the used terminology is sufficiently defined. Read the rest of the entry
The UNFCCC does not define ‘climate’ at all, while
WMO says: 'climate' is average weather.
This website will provide information and ask, does science know what climate is?

Reference links :
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
NEW 2009


This & That




F. Kenneth Hare, 1979; „The Vaulting of Intellectual Barriers: The Madison Thrust in Climatology“,  Bulletin American Meteorological Society , Vol. 60, 1979, p. 1171 – 1124

The World Climate Conference (Geneva 1979) is a gathering largely of non-atmospheric
scientists. It has dawned upon our colleagues in WMO, and its Executive Committee, that what matters about climate is not merely the question of its predictability, which is obviously our business; it is also the question of the impact it makes upon the world's peoples. And
that is not obviously within our competence. There is nothing in our training that makes us experts in the art of interpreting climatic impact. And so the World Climate Conference is going to be made up of nearly 80 %  non-atmospheric scientists. There: will be economists,
agronomists, foresters, politicians, all broadly speaking expert…….



B. R. Stanton, 1991, “Ocean Circulation and Ocean Atmosphere Exchange”, in: Climate Change, Vol. 18, p 175-194

The atmosphere and the oceans must be considered as one system when studying long-term climate changes.



B. R. Stanton, 1991, “ocean Circulation and Ocean Atmosphere Exchange”, in: Climate Change, Vol. 18, p 175-194

The upper 3 m of water (layer of the ocean) has the same heat capacity as the whole of the atmosphere. Hence the heat required to raise the temperature of the atmosphere by 1º C can be obtained from cooling the upper 3 m of water by the same amount.



J. N. Carruthers,  1941, “Some Interrelationships of Meteorology and Oceanography”, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 67, No. 291, July 1941, pages 207 -  243,  and Discussion p.243-246 ; (the following excerpts are at pages. 218).

  • Let us remember that it takes more than 3,000 times as much heat to warm a given volume of sea-water one degree as to warm an equal volume of air at sea-level one degree.
  • Helland-Hansen says: that “presumably almost 150,000 cubic km of water are carried into the Norwegian Sea by the Atlantic current in the course of the year, and that if this mass of water gives off to the air so much heat that it becomes on the average 1° colder it will be enough to raise by 10°a stratum of air nearly 4,000 m. high covering the whole of Europe. 
    • (Reference paper of Helland-Hansen: “The Ocean Water”; An Introduction to Physical Oceanography, Part 1: -being Hydrogr. Suppl., 1 Serie 1912 to Inter. Rev.Ges. Hydrobil. Hydrogr., 3, Leipzig, 1912.)
  • Quotation from Littlehales: “a tract of ocean 450 miles square and one-tenth of a mile deep, in being reduced one degree in temperature, would give off enough heat to raise the temperature of the atmosphere 10° over the whole of the United States up to a height of two miles”.
    • (Reference paper G.W. Littlehales: “The Ocean among the Factors o the Control of Climate”; Symposium on Some Factors of Climate Control. American Geophysical Union; General Assembly, April 1927. Bull.Nat.Coun., Wash., No.61, 26-31, 1927.


Essay 2010
Is the term ‚climate’ too unspecific?
Pages 10

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Essays from 1992 to 1997 on CLIMATE
by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts
“Legal Means for Understanding the Marine and climatic Change Issue”,
p.24 presented at the 28th Annual Conf. of the Law of the Sea Institute, Honolulu

“Conditions for the protection of the global climate”,
p.53 presented at GKSS Research Center Geesthacht


Black Sea-Model Case
--Paper, p.53
--Conf-Paper, p. 6


Four short texts
1994 Moscow

1994 LOS

1993 LOS

1992 Nature

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