How could it happen that more than a dozen of the most prestigious scientific associations signed and submitted this letter on ‘climate change’ without having ensured that the used terminology is sufficiently defined. Read the rest of the entry
The UNFCCC does not define ‘climate’ at all, while
WMO says: 'climate' is average weather.
This website will provide information and ask, does science know what climate is?

Reference links :
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
NEW 2009


This & That




H.U. Sverdrup, 1942, "Oceanography for Meteorologists", New York, 1942, Chapter X, p. 223

It might appear, therefore, as if the oceanic circulation and the distribution of temperature and salinity in the oceans are caused by the atmospheric processes, but such a conclusion would be erroneous, because the energy that maintains the atmospheric circulation is to a great extent supplied by the ocean. It will be shown that this energy supply is very localized, owing to the character of the ocean currents, and that therefore the circulation of the atmosphere, which depends upon where energy is supplied, must be influenced by the oceanic circulation. The reasoning leads to the conclusion that one cannot deal independently with the atmosphere or the oceans, but must deal with the complete system, atmosphere-oceans. This fact has been recognized in oceanography, where one gets nowhere by neglecting the relation to the atmosphere, but in meteorology it has not yet received sufficient attention. (p. 223)

It is reasoned that the heat content of the ocean water is very great compared to that of the atmosphere, and that therefore any change in ocean current will for a long time influence the air temperature and the circulation. (p. 234)



J.N. Carruthers, 1941, "Some Interrelationships of Meteorology and Oceanography", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 67, No.291, July 1941, pp. 207 - 232; Appendices 232-246; HERE: p.207

Meteorologists have little need of words of mine on the theme that our two sciences are so intimately connected that students of the one must needs stock of, the findings of the other.
(207) The April 1927 issue of his journal, contains the following words (by Prof. Gerhard Schott’s): It has for some years surprised me that although the motions of the oceans of air and water have much in common and depend on the same principles, students in meteorology do not as a matter of course acquaint themselves with the fundamental facts of oceanography.
(207) I could cite many wise remarks made by the great figure of oceanographical world, Professor  B. Helland-Hansen. To read what he has to say about “he interaction of the ocean and atmosphere” (in Report on the Scientific Results of the “Michael Sars” North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910, 1, 13-15, Bergen, 1931), is to read the words of a master. Another oceanographer, Professor Hans Pettersson, has written instructively on “Meteorological aspects of oceanography” (Mon. Weath.Rev., Washington, 44, 338-341, June 1916), and has compared that great regulator the ocean to “a kind of ‘saving bank’ for solar energy, receiving deposits in seasons of excessive insolation and paying them back in seasons of want. (230)………….



J.N. Carruthers, 1941, "Some Interrelationships of Meteorology and Oceanography", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 67, No.291, July 1941, pp. 207 - 232; Appendices 243-246; HERE p. 208

Eight years ago, the very wide subject: “Oceanography and meteorology” was treated expertly and in considerable detail in a 60-page paper which confer a real boon on the practitioners of both u science. The writer was the American meteorologist C.F. Brooks, who has had wide dealings with the sea and who made very extensive investigations on ocean temperatures among other things.
In one section of his valuable paper (FN), entitled  “Surface oceanography fundamental to world meteorology,” C.F. Brooks treats the following subjects:-

  • The ocean as regulator of he world weather.
  • The ocean and the planetary wind belts.
  • Seasonal abnormities in centres of action.
  • Ocean temperatures in seasonal weather forecasting.

( C.F. Brooks states and addresses furthermore the following issues):

  • “If it is possible
    • (a) to forecast the distribution of surface water temperature a few weeks in advance, it may prove possible
    • (b) to forecast the general paths which will be followed by cyclones and anticyclones; and then
    • ( c), from the winds which will result, to make long-range forecast of the general weather to be expected in any period,”

(C.F.Brooks goes on to ask and discuss):

    • (d) How do water surface temperature departures originate and move?
    • How do these ocean temperatures control atmospheric pressure and winds? and
    • (f), What weather occurs with the winds which accompany nay pressure type?

FN: C.F. Brooks “Oceanography and Meteorology” Chapter 14 (457-519) of Physics o the Earth-V.

 “Oceanography” Bull. Nat. Coun., Wash., No.85, June 1932



J.T.Houghton, et al. (ed), 1990, Climate Change -The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7, Observed Climate Variation and Change, Cambridge 1990p. 223

Even the upper few metres of the ocean can store as much heat as the entire overlying atmospheric column of air. Scientists have long recognized (Rossby, 1959) that the ocean could act to store large amounts of heat, through small temperature changes in its sub-surface layers, for hundreds or thousand of years. When this heat returns to the atmosphere /cryosphere system it could also significantly affect climate.
The magnitude and extent of the observed changes in the temperature and salinity of the deep North Atlantic are thus large enough that they cannot be neglected in future theories of climate change.



J. W. Sandström (1946-1947), "World Temperatures Anomalies", Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademies Handlingar, Tredje Serien, Band 23, No. 4, Stockholm. (I. Temperature Anomalies, Summary, p. 18)

The influence of the sea on the weather seems to be of particular interest, seeing that the great specific heat of the sea water influences the atmosphere in a very high degree. The slow variation of the oceanic conditions will probably make it possible to predict the general character of the weather a long time in advance, to foresee the summer in the following winter will be warm or cold, abundant in snow or not, and in the winter if the following summer will be warm and dry or cold and wet.



Essay 2010
Is the term ‚climate’ too unspecific?
Pages 10

Chronicle Archive
Talk About Topics
Click for archive 2012
Click for archive 2011
Click for archive 2010
Click for archive 2009
Click for archive 2008
Click for archive 2007

Want to comment?
Email us!

Previous archives Year 2010
Year 2009

Essays from 1992 to 1997 on CLIMATE
by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts
“Legal Means for Understanding the Marine and climatic Change Issue”,
p.24 presented at the 28th Annual Conf. of the Law of the Sea Institute, Honolulu

“Conditions for the protection of the global climate”,
p.53 presented at GKSS Research Center Geesthacht


Black Sea-Model Case
--Paper, p.53
--Conf-Paper, p. 6


Four short texts
1994 Moscow

1994 LOS

1993 LOS

1992 Nature

Note to User
Kindly indicate:
as source
Terms & Conditions